lunes, 14 de agosto de 2006

Charts and Diagrams(second part)

Double Bubble Maps

* For Comparing and Contrasting

Fishbone Maps

* A fishbone map (also called a herringbone map) is used to explore the many aspects or effects of a complex topic, helping the student to organize their thoughts in a simple, visual way. The use of color helps make a fishbone map clearer and easier to interpret.


* Flowchart diagrams (also called entity relationship diagrams) visually display a chain of instructions used to complete an algorithm or other complicated process.

Pie Charts

* Pie chart diagrams (also called circle graphs) are useful for displaying information about the percentages or parts of a whole.

Spider Maps

* A Spider map (also called a semantic map) is used to investigate and enumerate various aspects of a single theme or topic, helping the student to organize their thoughts. Called a Spider Map because it looks a bit like a spider's web.

Star Maps

* Star diagrams are useful for basic brainstorming about a topic or listing all the major traits related to a theme. Star maps do not have to be "star-shaped", but always have a central region with other areas radiating out from this. Normal formats are: 5 to 8 Stars, 5 to 8 Circles, 4 to 8 Squares, 5 to 8 Petals, 5 to 8 Ovals.


* T-Charts are a type of chart in which a student lists and examines two facets of a topic, like the pros and cons associated with it, its advantages and disadvantages, facts vs. opinions, etc.

Tree Maps

* Tree Diagrams show how items are related to one another.

The tree's trunk represents the main topic, and the branches represent relevant facts, factors, influences, traits, people, or outcomes. Tree diagrams can be used to sort items or classify them. A family tree is an example of a tree diagram.

Venn Diagrams

* A Venn Diagram is made up of two or three overlapping circles.

In mathematics, Venn diagrams are used to visualize the relationship between two or three sets. Venn diagrams can also be used to compare and contrast the characteristics of other items, like groups of people, individual people, books, characters, animals, etc.


* Y-Charts are a type of three-part chart.

Many other sites are available on the web. Do a Google or Yahoo search for "Graphic organizers".

Recuperation of KMV 4 and 5:

Part 4

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Concept mapping
Concept maps visualize the relationships between different concepts.
* Supposed to be a map, a system view, of a real (abstract) system or set of concepts.
* Concept map grows within a context frame defined by an explicit "focus question"
* Use linking phrases, e.g., "gives rise to", "results in", "is required by", "contributes to", etc.
* Represent the mental models, i.e., the cognitive map of individuals, teams and organizations.
* Represent the structure of knowledge gleaned from written documents.
* Aid creativity
* Used for brain-storming
* Communicate complex ideas
* Used in software design
* A first step in ontology-building
* Can also be used flexibly to represent formal argument.
Copyright (c) 1998-2006 Florida's Institute for Human & Machine Cognition (IHMC)
Mind mapping
Radial hierarchies and tree structures similar to a semantic network or cognitive map, also called "Webs" or "Webbing"
* a diagram used to represent words, ideas, tasks or other items
* linked to and arranged radially around a central key word or idea
* used to generate, visualize, structure and classify ideas,
* used as an aid in study, organization, problem solving, and decision making
* an image-centered diagram
* no formal restrictions on the kinds of links used.
* the map involves images, words, and lines
* most important points or keywords
* elements are arranged intuitively according to the importance of the concepts
* organized into groupings, branches, or areas
* used for note-taking,
* brainstorming
* summarizing
* revising
* clarifying of thoughts
* a mnemonic technique
* colour pen creativity sessions

Part 5

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Image Mapping
Image maps are graphics that have a series of links hidden in them. An image is "mapped" into a series of coordinates that represent the individual pixels that make up an image. Areas of the image can then be designated "hot spots" (the equivelent of a graphical link) such that when a user clicks the mouse between a series of "hot" coordinates they are taken to a new location. Clicking another part (or series of coordinates) of the same image will take them to a different location.
There are two kinds of image maps that are possible to create: server side image maps and client side image maps. The difference between the two comes down to which computer calculates the coordinates of where a user clicks the mouse on an image. Server side image maps require use of a special software (CGI) program running on the server to calculate the coordinates and give them to the browser. Client side image maps require no special software to execute. The only reason to run a server side image map is to accomodate users who have old browsers that do not support client side image maps. The last several versions of both Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer all support client side image maps.


Information Clustering and Browser Mapping
Browser Mapping, Information Space Maps, Visual Search Tools.
* Online mapping techniques that represent graphically the results of web browsing.
* Larger circles represent higher significance.
* Clustering puts results into useful categories.
* Visualization makes it easier to see the relationships between results.
* Filtering allows the user to quickly pinpoint specific links and documents.
* Show and open links to all documents found.

A new term for a modified mapping technique developed by Arjen ter Hoeve, author of podcasts and training materials focused on mind mapping. He has written an e-book on this visual mapping technique which he has developed.
He defines a summap as "a collection of logically, non linear organised information which is arranged by (direct) relationships and position".
Summapping is the natural evolution of proven visual mapping techniques like conceptmapping and mindmapping. It looks a lot like mind-mapping (borrowing a lot of concepts and practices from both mind-mapping and concept mapping), except that maps can contain items that may be closely related to one another which are located in close proximity in the diagram, but don't always need to be joined using connector lines.
The techniques of gSummappingh are to:
* Provide a more flexible medium for recording information and ideas (by creating collections of information that aren't necessarily tied to a rigid, connected hierarchy)
* Make the contents of visual maps easier for others to understand (by incorporating a standardized set of map symbols and mapping conventions)
* Capture more information in a compact format (both more map elements, as well as a greater variety of content).
* Show the not-immediately or not-related information in close proximity ? mindmaps and conceptmaps donft do this (there is no association between them).
Please see BrainBox and CmapTools under gAvailable Free Methods and Softwareh for methods for making Summaps. Both BrainBoxes MapEdit and CmapTools are programs that can incorporate "floating" topics, so you can try out this technique.
Topic Mapping
Groupings of addressable information objects around topics (occurrences)
Topic maps refer to the ISO standard (ISO/IEC 13250:2003).
* structural information
* relationships between topics (associations)
* defines a multidimensional topic space
* in which the locations are topics
* in which the distances between topics are measurable in terms of the number of intervening topics which must be visited in order to get from one topic to another
* kinds of relationships that define the path from one topic to another, if any, through the intervening topics, if any

Here are the complete PhotoBrowsers for the complete series of KMV, 1-5, 6-10 and 11-15:

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Types of Graphic Organizers
Star/web: Use it to show definitions, attributes, examples, and brainstorming.
Chart/Matrix: Use it to show attributes, comparing and contrasting, and evaluating.
Tree/Map: Use it to show classifications, pedigrees, analysis, structures, attributes, examples, and brainstorming.
Chain: Use it to show processes, sequences, causes and effects, and chronology.
Sketch: Use it to show physical structures, descriptions of places, spatial relationships, concrete objects, and visual images.
Others are: Bridging, Snapshots, CerebralChart, Compare/Contrast, Tree, Spider Maps, Continuum Scale, Cycle, Problem/Solution, Outline, T-Charts, Fishbone Maps, Questions, Venn Diagrammes, Human Interaction, Outline Ranking, Series of Events.

Charts and Diagrams (first part)
Brace Maps
* Brace Maps (also called Bracket Maps) used for Identifying Part/Whole Relationships.

Bridge Maps
* Bridge maps are used for seeing Analogies

Bubble Maps
* Bubble maps (Circle maps) are used for Describing with Adjectives. See Star Maps below.

Cause and Effect Diagrams
* Cause and Effect diagrams, also called sequence of events diagrams or multi-flow maps, describe how events affect one another in a process.
There are many models of cause and effect events, including:
Disjointed Events - in which each cause has one effect.
One Cause Leading to Multiple Events - in which one cause has multiple effects.
Multiple Causes Leading to One Event - in which multiple causes have one effect (a fishbone diagram can be used for these).
Chain of Events - in which one event causes another, which triggers another, etc., like the domino effect.
Cycle of Events - in which cyclic causes/effects are repeated, like a feedback loop.
More Complex Events - in which multiple causes and effects interact.

Chain Maps
* Chain diagrams, also called sequence of events diagrams or Flow Maps, describe the stages or steps in a process and are useful in examining linear cause-and-effect processes and other processes that unfold sequentially.

* Chart diagrams (also called matrix diagrams or tables) condense and organize data about multiple traits associated with many items or topics. Charts can be used to show attributes of items, to compare and contrast topics, and to evaluate information.

Circle Maps
* For Defining in Context (similar to Oval Star Maps).

Clock Maps
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* Clock Diagrams show how items are related to one another in a time-oriented cycle. In making a clock diagram, the student must identify the main events in the cycle, how one event leads to another, and, if appropriate, how the cycle repeats.

Cluster Maps
* Cluster diagrams (also called cloud diagrams) can help to systematize the generation of ideas based upon a central topic. Using this type of diagram, the student can more easily brainstorm a theme, associate about an idea, or explore a new subject.

Continuum Maps
* Continuum or timeline diagrams are used to represent a continuum of data that occur in chronological (time) order or in sequential order. Use a continuum map if the topic has a definite beginning and/or ending points and the data points in between are not discrete.

Cyclic Maps
* Cycle Diagrams show how items are related to one another in a repeating cycle. Use a cycle diagram when there is no beginning and no end to a repeating process. In making a cycle diagram, the student must identify the main events in the cycle, how they interact, and how the cycle repeats.


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This series of articles has been recompiled to address the needs of Students and other “financially limited” users. All methods and software listed for download are FREE of charge. Recompilation is from existing material (in many instances identical), available from different sources on the internet. All graphics that are not self-drawn, freely available for re-use, or used with the original author’s permission, are accompanied by their respective copyright notice. Links to some of the sources of information and to the free software downloads are given at the end of each section.
Visual Knowledge Mapping
Knowledge Visualization Mapping aims to improve the transfer of knowledge by the complementary use of computer and non-computer-based visual formats. Examples are photographs, information graphics, sketches, diagrams, images, mind maps, interactive visualizations, animations, imaginary visualizations, story boards or even physical objects for inspection.
Knowledge mapping is a general term that covers:
* mapping public issues
* mind-maps
* pattern languages
* dialogue mapping
* graphic facilitation
* geographical information mapping
* quantitative charts and graphs
* process and procedure flow charts
* timelines
* all other forms of visual presentation of information, especially of relationships.

Non-visual written Material
Some authors claim that outlining comes in many variations, from the classic Harvard outline to the designs called concept mapping, webbing, mind mapping, diagramming, thematic mapping, graphic outlining, and bubble mapping. Here we will treat the concept of outlining in the way it is still used by a large number of students, i.e. representing only text based organizers.
An outline is an overview of a set of ideas, an organized summary of the relationships between key ideas, categories and the subordinate points of an idea, hiding or leaving out, less important details. These ideas are organized in text format.
* Outlining provides concise ways to organize and represent knowledge.
* Organizes the relationships between the main and subordinate points of an idea, activity or argument.
* Aids in remembering and understanding better, by connecting ideas that we know and understand with new ideas, making it easier to organize, prioritize and prune the thoughts that emerge, and then proceed with the expansion of the structure that is left standing.
The critical key advantage that digital outline processors provide over paper is the ability to collapse or instantly move any section of an outline. The white plus and minus signs are used to indicate the presence or absence of further information. The plus sign is also used as a clickable item that collapses and expands outlines. Following is an outline in Microsoft Word in the classic Harvard outline format.

The Outline command under View in Microsoft Word activates outlining mode; under Format, the Bullets and Numbering commands allow selection of different outline numbering designs. However, as Word outlining demonstrates, the formal outline style is totally unnecessary to effective outlining activity.
Text-based outline processing tools are often the most overlooked and the most powerful computer applications for thinking. Many applications have been created for text outlining tools, but for simple outlining, compatible with many ConceptMap and Mind- Mapping software packages, a simple text editor, such as Notepad is sufficient.
Prague imageSimpleOutlining
For further information and free software:
Visual Material
Graphic Organizers

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A graphic organizer is a visual communication tool that uses visual symbols to express ideas and concepts to convey meaning.
* Often depicts the relationships between facts, terms, and or ideas within a learning task.
* Often referred to as a "map", because it can help to "map out" ideas in a visual manner.
* There are many similar names for graphic organizers, including: knowledge maps, concept maps, story maps, cognitive organizers, advanced organizers, or concept diagrams.
* They provide a visual aid to facilitate learning and instruction. Most graphic organizers form a powerful visual picture of information and allow the mind “to see” undiscovered patterns and relationships.
* Very useful in making a decision because they force the student to think about what the problem is, what the possible alternatives are, and what the consequences (positive and negative) of each alternative could be. Any decision can then be more easily analyzed.
The graphic organizer guides the student through a four-stage decision- making process:
1. State the decision that needs to be made.
2. List possible alternatives.
3. List the pros and cons associated with each of the alternatives.
4. Compare the consequences of each of the alternatives, in order to make the decision.

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